Basic Information of Past CPC National Congresses

The 1st CPC National Congress

Location: Shanghai, then South Lake, Jiaxing, Zhejiang.

Date: July 23- 31, 1921

Participants

Delegates: 12

Party members: 50

Significance: The first programme of the Party passed, where the name of the party was set as the Communist Party of China; Mao Zedong attended (as Hunan representative); Chen Duxiu became first leader of CPC "Secretariat"; Chen Duxiu, Zhang Guotao and Li Da formed the Central Bureau of CPC; attended by two Comintern representatives (during Shanghai meetings).

The 2nd CPC National Congress

Date: July 16–23, 1922

Location: Shanghai

Participants

Delegates: 12

Represented party members: 195

Significance: Chen Duxiu, on behalf of the Central Bureau, presented the party’s first work report; formulated the first constitution of the Communist Party of China; issued the Manifesto of the Second National Congress of CPC and determined the party’s maximum programme as fighting to achieve communism and its minimum programme as competing the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal revolution. Chen Duxiu was elected as the leader of the CPC Central Executive committee,with Zhang Guotao, Cai Hesen, Gao Junyu and Zheng Zhongxia as its members, Li Hanjun, Li Dazhao and Xiang Jingyu as its Alternate member.

The 3rd CPC National Congress

Date: June 12–20, 1923

Location: Guangzhou

Participants

Delegates: 30 plus

Represented party members: 420

Significance: passed the CPC Programme Draft; issued the Manifesto of the Third National Congress of CPC; formally ratifies the "bloc within" strategy of cooperation with the KMT to form the national revolutionary united front. Chen Duxiu was elected as the chairman of the CPC Central Bureau with Mao Zedong , Cai Hesen, Luo Zhanglong and Tan Pingshan as members. Mao served as secretary and Luo Zhanglong as accountant.

The 4th National Congress

Date: January 11–22, 1925

Location: Shanghai

Participants

Delegates: 20

Represented party members: 994

Significance: issued the Manifesto of the Fourth National Congress of CPC. The central topic for discussion was to strengthen the proletariat’s leadership of the rising revolution and prepare for its climax. The alliance of workers and peasants was also mentioned. The definition of the Chinese democratic revolution was revised. Chen Duxiu was elected as the Secretary General of the CPC Central Committee and Zhang Guotao, Peng Shuzhi, Cai Hesen and Qu Qiubai as members.

The 5th CPC National Congress

Date: April 27-May 9, 1927

Location: Wuhan

Participants

Delegates: 82

Represented party members: 57,967

Significance: Passed the Resolution of Accepting the Resolution of the 7th Comintern expanded meeting and the Resolution of Political Situation and the Party’s Tasks. Chen Duxiu was elected as the Secretary General of the Central Committee and Zhang Guotao, Cai Hesen, Qu Qiubai, Zhou Enlai, Tan Pingshan and Zheng Zhongxia as members of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee.

The 6th CPC National Congress

Date: June 18-July 11, 1928

Location: Moscow

Participants

Delegates: 84

Alternate delegates: 39

Represented party members: 130,194

Significance: Xiang Zhongfa chaired the Congress and presented the report on the workers movement; Qu Qiubai presented the politics report On The Chinese Revolution And The CPC, Zhou Enlai presented the report On Organization And Military Issues and Li Lisan presented the report on peasant and land issues; passed Resolution on the Soviet Regime Organizational Issues and The Fourth Amendment of the Constitution of the Communist Party; confirmed nature of the Chinese revolution as the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal revolution; determined the general line as to win over more general public in order to prepare for the climax of the revolution; Xiang Zhongfa was elected Chairman of the CPC Central standing committee, Zhou Enlai, Su Zhaozheng, Xiang ying and Cai Hesen were elected as members; Qu Qiubai and Zhang Guotao, together with the previous 5 people, are members of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee; also elected are 23 members of the Central Committee including Mao Zedong and Ren Bishi.

The 7th CPC National Congress

Date: April 23-June 11, 1945

Location: Yan'an, Shaanxi

Participants

Delegates: 544

Alternate delegates: 208

Represented party members: 1.21 million

Significance: Party constitution is passed in which Mao Zedong Thought was enshrined in CPC Party Constitution for first time; Mao presented the politics report On Coalition Government, Zhu De presented the military report On Liberated Area Battlefield, and Liu Shaoqi presented the report On Revising the Party Constitution; CPC Chairman Mao Zedong is named leader of CPC; Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai and Ren Bishi were elected secretary of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee; Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Ren Bishi, Zhou Enlai, Gao Gang, Kang Sheng, Peng Zhen, Dong Biwu, Chen Yun, Lin Boqu, Zhang Wentian and Peng Dehuai were elected members of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee.

The 8th CPC National Congress

Date: September 15–27, 1956

Location: Beijing

Participants

Delegates: 1,026

Alternate delegates: 107

Represented party members: 10,730,000

Significance: first Congress to be held in 11 years since the seventh Congress; Mao Zedong gave the opening speech, Deng Xiaoping presented the report On Revising the Party Constitution, and Zhou Enlai presented the report Suggestions to the Second Five-year plan; Decided that Socialism has been established in China, the main conflict is between people’s rapidly growing economic and cultural need and the lack of capability to meet them, and that the major task of the Chinese people is to develop social productive power, industrialize the country and gradually meet people’s material and spiritual needs; Mao Zedong was elected Chairman of the CPC Central Committee, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Zhu Dei and Chen Yun were Vice-Chairman of the CPC Central Committee and members of the Politburo, Deng Xiaoping was elected General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee.

The 9th CPC National Congress

Date: April 1–24, 1969

Location: Beijing

Participants

Delegates: 1,512

Represented party members: 22,000,000

Significance: Mao Zedong chaired the Congress and gave a speech, Defence Minister Lin Biao became CPC Vice Chairman and was designated constitutionally as Mao's successor; legalized the wrong theories and practices of the Culture Revolution, enhanced the positions held by Jiang Qing and gang.

The 10th CPC National Congress

Date: August 24–28, 1973

Location: Beijing

Participants

Delegates: 1,249

Represented party members: 28,000,000

Significance: Mao Zedong chaired the Congress; Zhou Enlai presented the politics report, passed new Party Constitution; Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao, Jiang Qing and Yao Wenyuan formed "Gang of Four" in the Politburo.

The 11th  CPC National Congress

Date: August 12–18, 1977

Location: Beijing

Participants

Delegates: 1,510

Represented party members: 35,000,000

Significance: first Party Congress after the fall of the Gang of Four; Hua Guofeng presented the Politics Report, Ye Jianying presented the report On Revising the Party Constitution, Deng Xiao ping gave the closing speech; redressed the crimes of the Gang of Four and pronounced the end of the Cultural Revolution; Hua Guofeng was elected Chairman of the CPC Central Committee, Ye Jianying, Deng Xiaoping, Li Xiannian, Wang Dongxing and Chen Yun (added in Dec 1978) were elected members of the Politburo and Vice-Chairman of the Central Committee; Deng Xiaoping was reinstated to all of his previous posts; Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang were added as members of the Politburo and Hu was elected as the General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee in February 1980.

The 12th CPC National Congress

Date: September 1–11, 1982

Location: Beijing

Participants

Delegates: 1,545

Alternate delegates: 149

Represented party members: 39,657,212

Significance: Deng Xiaoping brought up the theory of “building a socialist society with Chinese characteristics” in his opening speech; Hu Yaobang gave the politics report On Creating a New Phase of Socialist Modernization On All Fronts; Central Discipline Inspection Commission presented its work report; passed new Party Constitution, where it stipulated that probationary party members have to take an oath under the party flag; Hu Yaobang was elected General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, Deng Xiao Ping was the director of the Central Advisory Commission and Chen Yun was the First Secretary of the Central Discipline Inspection Commission.

The 13th CPC National Congress

Date: October 25-November 1, 1987

Location: Beijing

Participants

Full delegates: 1,936

Specially invited delegates: 61

Represented party members: 46,000,000

Significance: Deng Xiaoping chaired the Congress; Zhao Ziyang gave the politics report Marching Along the Socialist Path with Chinese Characteristics; Passed the Amendment of Several Sections of the Party Constitution; raised the theory that China is in the primary stage of socialism; determined the party’s basic line as “One Central Task, Two Basic Points”. Zhao Ziyang was elected General Secretary of CPC Central Committee; Zhao Ziyang, Li Peng, Qiao Shi, Hu Qili, Yao Yilin were elected members of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee; Chen Yun was the director of the Central Advisory Commission Standing Committee; Qiao Shi was Secretary of the Central Discipline Inspection Commission.

The 14th CPC National Congress

Date: October 12–18, 1992

Location: Beijing

Participants

Full delegates: 1,989

Specially invited delegates: 46

Represented party members: 51,000,000

Significance: Jiang Zemin gave the politics report Quicken the Process of Opening up and Modernization and Seize Bigger Success in Building Socialism With Chinese Characteristic in which the goal of China’s economic structure reform was determined as ‘to build a socialist market economy’ and Deng Xiaoping’s theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristic was established as the guiding ideology of the party; Jiang Zemin was elected CPC General Secretary; Jiang Zemin, Li Peng, Qiao Shi, Li Ruihuan, Zhu Rongji, Liu Huaqing and Hu Jintao were elected members of the Politburo Standing Committee.

The 15th CPC National Congress

Date: September 12–18, 1997

Location: Beijing

Participants

Full delegates: 2,048

Specially invited delegates: 60

Represented party members: 58,000,000

Significance: Jiang Zemin gave the politics report titled Under the Great Banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, Push the Building Socialism With Chinese Characteristics Into The Twenty-first Century; Adjusted and perfected the ownership structure; Fully affirmed the existence and importance of joint-stock enterprises; Included Deng Xiaoping's philosophy into the Party Constitution; Jiang Zemin was elected General Secretary of CPC Central Committee, Jiang Zemin, Li Peng, Zhu Rongji, Li Ruihuan, Hu Jintao, Wei Jianxing and Li Lanqing were members of the politburo Standing Committee, Wei Jianxing was secretary of Central Discipline Inspection Commission.

The 16th CPC National Congress

Date: November 8–15, 2002

Location: Beijing

Participants

Full delegates: 2,134

Specially invited delegates: 40

Represented party members: 66,000,000

Significance: Jiangzemin presented the politics report Build a Well-off Society in an All-Round Way and Create New Situation in Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics; Three Represents, as a continuation and development of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory, was included into the Party Constitution; Hu Jintao was elected General Secretary; Hu Jintao, Wu Bangguo, Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Zeng Qinghong, Huang Ju, Wu Guanzhenng, Li Changchun and Luo Gan were elected members of the Politburo Standing Committee; Wu Guanzheng was elected Secretary of Central Discipline Inspection Commission.

The 17th CPC National Congress

Date: October 15–21, 2007

Location: Beijing

Participants

Full delegates: 2,213

Specially invited delegates: 57

Represented party members: 73,360,000

Significance: Hu Jintao presented the politics report Hold High the Great Banner of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Strive for New Victories in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in all Respects; Hu's Scientific Development Concept was entrenched in the party's constitution as an official guiding ideology; Hu Jintao was elected General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, Hu Jintao, Wu Bangguo, Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Li Changchun, Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, He Guoguang and Zhou Yongkang were elected members of the Politburo Standing Committee; He Guoguang was Secretary of Central Discipline Inspection Commission.

The 18th CPC National Congress

Date: November 8-14, 2012

Location: Beijing

Participants

Full delegates: 2,270 (Two of the 2,270 delegates elected from various electoral units across the country died of illness after the list was published. The actual number of delegates now is 2,268.)

Specially invited delegates: Unknown

Represented party members: Unknown

Significance: Xi Jinping is promoted to General Secretary, chairman of Central Military Commission and leader of the ruling communist party. As the head of the party is usually the de facto paramount leader of China. Former General Secretary Hu Jintao is expected to step down presidency in the months following the 18th Congress. Other elected members of the Politburo Standing Committee are Li Keqiang, Zhang Dejiang, Yu Zhengsheng, Liu Yunshan, Wang Qishan and Zhang Gaoli. Bo Xilai was expelled from the politburo before the 18th National Congress due to the Wang Lijun incident and other violations.


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